Peru is one of the largest producers and exporters of quinoa, followed by Bolivia. The complete quinoa seed value chain involves various stakeholders: provision of inputs, producers, processors, exporters, intermediaries, and wholesale/retailers. Intermediaries play a very important role in the value chain as, they are the importers and there are very few companies that import and distribute quinoa in the destination countries. Hence, they have the sole power to decide the prices for quinoa seeds in the market.
Quinoa is a crop that can be cultivated in marginal areas also, and hence, it creates an opportunity for the Middle Eastern countries to cultivate it on a large scale. Production is also on the rise in many countries, like the United States, Argentina, and India, where quinoa does not have as much popularity. In the Netherlands, a variety of quinoa has been developed, which enables the crop to be grown in lowland areas. Quinoa cultivation has been incorporated in various European countries, like Belgium, Italy, France, and the Netherlands, among others. Studies are ongoing to develop varieties, which will be temperature susceptible.
Europe is increasingly becoming an emerging market for quinoa seeds with the changing consumption patterns in leading European countries. In 2016 France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands were the top five importers of quinoa seeds in Europe, with a combined import of 25,000 metric ton. Owing to the multi-dimensionality of quinoa and the health benefits it offers, the import and consumption are expected to further increase.
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