It is estimated that over 50 % of the citys population is alreadyun-servedbythewatercompany, whichisstrugglingtoreduce its estimated 60 % of water losses through leaksand illegal connections. Shortfalls in piped supply are being met by thousands of largely unregulated private or community boreholes into the citys over-abstracted groundwater reserves. Many have been affected by salt water intrusion and have had to be abandoned. Useofthecitysshallowgroundwaterisalsoproblematic because of contamination by pollution from industry, waste andsewagedisposal.
Tanzanias power industry is under tremendous pressure to transform, driven by concerns surrounding growing consumer demand, blackouts, climate change, changing fuel preferences and aging assets. In addition, the discovery of important offshore natural gas reserves presents a transformational opportunity for Tanzania. To what extent will these gas resources contribute to international and regional energy supplies? Are legislative arrangements in place for Tanzania to benefit from its natural resources and encourage the development of its energy market?